Robotic surgery is a fairly recent and exciting advance in endoscopic surgery. Instead of the surgeon standing besides the patient and operating directly on the patient, operating arms are inserted into the abdomen of the patient. These arms are controlled remotely via a console. The operating surgeon, sitting at the console, views the inside of the abdomen through the eyepieces of the console and operates through joysticks attached to the console. The robotic arms inserted inside the abdomen can move sideways, front & back as well as rotate thus mimicking the movements of the wrist.
Various types of gynecological surgeries can be performed through the robot including hysterectomy, myomectomy, prolapse repair, tuboplasty, cancer surgery and uterine unification.
Advantages of robotic surgery include :
Greater speed, more patient comfort and less morbidity compared toopen surgery
Compression of ureters can lead to dilatation of the ureters (hydronephrosis) causing pain and, rarely, renal failure.
Disadvantages of robotic surgery include :
Larger size cuts on abdomen compared to laparoscopic surgery because of larger ports
Need of extra ports and instruments apart from robotic instruments to insert laparoscopic instruments
Very little practical advantage over laparoscopy in management of benign gynecologic conditions.